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Used to prevent the backflow of air through a non-operating vacuum motor. This prevents the motor from spinning backwards and having to deal with the spinning blades on startup of the motor when required for flow. This would lead to a high amp draw on startup and major air leak when that motor is not running.
These check valves are actually a pretty simple device that works quite well for the flowbench application.
They utilize a pvc pipe cap and a scupper valve from a boat. These two are mated together to form the valve you see here.
Use one valve per vacuum motor on the motors that are not speed controlled.